Pawnship, Slavery, and Colonialism in Africa

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This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. I am indebted to many members of the Workshop on Colonialism and Migration for constructive criticism of the first draft of this paper.

While this revised draft incorporates some of their suggestions, I am, of course, responsible for its content. Some of the research for this paper was done with the aid of grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Google Scholar. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn, eds. Asiegbu, Slavery and the Politics of Liberation. Africans valued women for their reproductive as well as their labour services, sold fewer females overseas, and generally discouraged them from becoming migrant workers.

Curtin, Census , pp. All recaptive Africans did not survive capture at sea - many died during the long sea chase and later in reception depots, so the figure is higher than the number of recaptives actually available to Britain and France for other purposes. James M. See also J. Jackson, ed.

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Jansen, ed. Peterson, Province of Freedom. John C. Beal and C. Beal and J. Alexander Barclay to J. Darling to John C. Terry to Darling, 12 February , enclosed in No. It is more detailed, especially on emigration, than the final published version. James Hackett to H. Young, 29 May , enclosed in No. Demerara, British Guiana had a distinct advantage in that Richard Fisher, its emigration agent, employed Kru in his lumber business and had close ties with them. Butts entertained two hundred Kru to dinner and recruited a hundred for British Guiana.

See R. Norman W. Melville, Sierra Leone Residence , pp. Quoted in Norman W.


Macdonald to W. Gladstone, No. See A.

Sibthorpe, The History of Sierra Leone , ; reprint ed. Terry to C. Darling, 12 February , enclosed in No. Nine hundred and ninety-nine Africans were eligible for government-assisted repatriation from British Guiana, but by only had left for Africa. In a number of Kru returned home from British Guiana.

See also R. Fisher to S. Walcott, 11 July , enclosed in B.

Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College

For a typical colonial view of the subject see James Maxwell, M. Asiegbu, Slavery and Politics of Liberation , pp. Since individuals in all the colonies owned slaves, this rhetoric had enormous emotional resonance throughout the colonies and helped turn the colonists against the mother county. Moreover, once colonists started protesting against their own enslavement, it was hard to deny the fundamental contradiction that slavery established: enslavement for black people and freedom for white people. Awareness of this contradiction forced white Americans to look at slavery in a new light.

African Diaspora through the Americas: Slavery in Portuguese America

If Americans chose to continue to enslave black people, they would have to devise new arguments to justify slavery. It was at this time that arguments about blacks' inherent racial inferiority emerged to rationalize the institution. Nonetheless, during and immediately after the American Revolution, many individuals in both the North and the South took their revolutionary ideals seriously and concluded that slavery was unjust. They freed, or manumitted, their slaves. Yet each state decided for itself how to handle the issue.

Northern states passed laws, or enacted judicial rulings, that either eliminated slavery immediately or put slavery on the road to gradual extinction. The story was different in the South.

The Colonization of Africa

Because Southern states had a much deeper economic investment in slavery, they resisted any efforts to eliminate slavery within their boundaries. Although some but not all of the Southern states allowed individual owners to manumit their slaves if they chose, no Southern state passed legislation that ended slavery completely, either immediately or gradually. This divergence in approach was significant, as it began the time during which slavery would disappear from the North and become uniquely associated with the South.

This moment was arguably the fork in the road that ultimately led the country to the sectional divisions that culminated in the coming of the Civil War. Africans in America. This site, associated with the PBS documentary series of the same name, contains numerous primary source documents relating to slaves and slavery in colonial British North America.

University of Virginia and Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. This website contains over 1, images of various aspects of the slave trade, including contemporaneous drawings of the capture in Africa, the Middle Passage, and life in the Americas. This site contains information on over 35, slaving voyages throughout the entire world. The site, which includes interactive maps, provides information on specific slave ships; estimates of the numbers of enslaved people brought from specific parts of Africa to specific parts of the Americas; and an African names database as well as several scholarly essays which analyze the data.

Berlin, Ira. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, This book sketches out regional differences in the institution of slavery in various parts of North America and explores the relationship between slave labor and the economy. It also explores how regions changed over time to allow slavery to have more or less importance in defining the society's characteristics. Carretta, Vincent. New York, Penguin, This is a critical analysis of one of the most famous autobiographies of an enslaved person who traveled throughout the Atlantic world in the colonial era.

Pawnship, Slavery, and Colonialism in Africa by Paul E Lovejoy, Toyin Falola -

Jordan, Winthrop D. This is a classic work that discusses changing American attitudes toward Africans and African Americans over time. The book includes a discussion of slavery in the colonial North as well as the South, and explores the effects of the American Revolution on slavery. Morgan, Edmund S. New York: W. Norton and Company, This is a classic work which in the first half discusses the evolution in 17th-century Virginia from a labor force consisting primarily of white indentured servants to one dominated by slaves.

The second part of the book grapples with the paradox of how some of the most fervent leaders of the American Revolution could at the same time hold human beings as slaves.