Oil Spill Response Performance Review of Skimmers (Astm Manual Series)

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Ohmsett allows manufacturers the opportunity to learn more about their product by testing in real environmental conditions and real-time data analysis for equipment designers, allowing them to redesign and develop more effective procedures for responding to future oil spills. Current researchers have included government agencies, universities, private companies and environmental research organizations. The F20 Committee was formed in to develop and update documents relevant to hazardous substances and oil spill response. The committee, with current membership of approximately , now has jurisdiction of over 55 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume Ohmsett uses ASTM standards for all oil spill equipment evaluations.

The F20 Committee was formed in to develop and update documents relevant to hazardous substances and oil spill response. The committee, with current membership of approximately , now has jurisdiction of over 55 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume Pertinent ASTM standards include:. This may be a conservative estimate.

Bilge Oil: Is that oil which collects in the ship's bottom through seepage or leakage. Overflows: An overflow of oil usually occurs during the loading or discharge of cargo and the transfer of cargo from one tank to another. This is usually caused by carelessness or inatten- tion.

Ballast Water: This is normally sea water taken into empty cargo tanks to give the vessel stability. The "empty" cargo tanks usually have a residue of oil in them. Collision: Whenever a loaded tanker vessel is involved in a collision the results is usually a major discharge of oil into the surrounding waters.

Surface Area: The inner surface of a cargo tank, if inspected closely, would be found to be rough, uneven and pockmarked with thousands of minute pore openings. The total surface area of the interior of the cargo tanks of a' T-2 tanker is approximately eight and one half acres. Clingage: When a beer glass is filled and emptied a certain amount of the liquid adheres to the side of the container.

This is the liquid required to "wet" the surface of the container. It will vary in amount as a function of its viscosity, tem- perature, volatility and the roughness and configuration of the container.


In the same way, a certain quantity of oil vunder fixed con- ditions is required to wet the surface of the tanks of a tanker. Under average conditions based on long experience, it has been found that this quantity varies from 0. A median figure might be 0. This means that if , barrels of average oil cargo were loaded into a tanker and the tanker immediately pumped out, only Butterworth System: An opera- tion of great significance in connection with the waste oil resulting from tanker opera- tion is the system used for cleaning or washing down the tanks.

Until the early 's, the cleaning of tankers was accomplished by long periods of steaming followed by hand washing with streams from fire hoses.

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There was then developed a system for machine washing of the tanks consisting of opposed revolving nozzles connected to a hose lowered to various levels in the tank to be washed. This is known as the Butterworth System. Background: Shell introduced the 'load-on-top' system in Other major oil companies soon followed, and today, encouraged by the oil industry, about 75 per cent of the world's crude oil tankers practice the tech- nique.

Refineries of the major oil companies accepted 'load- on-top' residue after an experi- mental period in which they proved to themselves that the residue can be processed through the refinery units if it is less than 1 per cent of the total crude cargo, and if the water content of the residue is less than O.

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The main problem facing the refinery operator is the removal of salt from the small amount of sea water discharged with the residue. The problem of the tanker opera- tor, then, is to remove as much water as possible from beneath the oil without discharging the oily waste itself. This is best described by Kluss-: "In the 'load-on-top' system, tanks are washed in this way during the ballast passage. The tank washing residues are accumulated in one tank.

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  • Most of the clean water in this tank is then carefully drawn off the bottom of the tank and discharged overboard, discharge being halted whenever oil traces appear in the water stream. The tank is allowed to settle, the oil wastes in the tank separate and float to the surface, and additional water is repeatedly withdrawn carefully from the bottom and discharged as before from beneath the floating layer of oil.

    Heat may be applied to hasten the separation of oil and water. Some companies occasionally add a demulsifier as well. When all possible water has been withdrawn, the next cargo is loaded on top of the remaining residues in this tank. Usually, this one compart- ment is segregated from the remainder of the cargo during discharge. Then the segregated material can be directed, as the specific situation dictates, to the fuels processing side of the refinery, to the refinery slop system for ultimate recovery, or mixed with the rest of the cargo being discharged.

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    • Pitching Ship: In a rolling pitching vessel, this is no small task. It is estimated that the oil content of the water discharged into the vessel's wake from the 'load- on-top' tank is in the region of ppm, slowly increasing to ppm and finally rising momentarily to ppm at the shut-off point. A tanker decant- ing this residue will not pollute the sea. Even the momentary maximum of ppm is only half of one per cent. The turbulence in the moving ship's wake would immediately dilute any oil to a tiny fraction of its original concentration. If a vessel experiences rough weather on its way to the loading port and the water in the 'load-on-top' is therefore not reduced to an acceptable level, fresh crude oil can still be loaded on top.

      But at the discharge terminal the mixture at the bottom of the tank must then be retained on board to be put through another 'load-on-top' cycle. There are too many questions left unan- swered. Members of the oil- shipping industry admit that, at present, the best method of measuring the PPM of oil in an oily water discharge is by the "eyeball" method.

      This means that a member of the ship's crew must constantly watch the overboard discharge until black oil is seen with the naked eye.

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      This may take from fifteen to thirty seconds. In the mean- time-,,. In the "Load-On-Top" paper, the author admits that at times, the dis- charge of oily waste into the sea reaches a height of 5, PPM. Emulsions: The basic problem of the "Load-On-Top" system is the question, "how much oil is contained in the water being decanted into the sea?

      The latter, of which the famous "chocolate mousse" is formed, is much more difficult to break than the former. The oil indus- try as a whole, has spent liter- ally millions of dollars trying to separate oil from their waste- water discharge. This is still a major problem in the industry today. Gross Tonnage: One hundred cubic feet of permanently enclosed space is equal to one gross ton- it has nothing whatever to do with weight.

      This is usually the registered tonnage although it may vary somewhat according to the classifying authority or nationality. Net Tonnage: This is the earn- ing capacity of a ship. Port and harbor dues are paid on Net Tonnage. Displacement Tonnage: This is the actual weight in tons, vary- ing according to whether a vessel is in a light or loaded condition.

      Warships are always spoken of by this form of measurement. Deadweight Tonnage: The actual weight in tons of cargo, stores, etc. Cargo deadweight is, as the name implies, the actual weight in tons of the cargo when loaded, as distinct from stores, bassast, etc.

      Innage: That space occupied in a product container. Outage: Space left in a product container to allow for expansion during temperature changes it may undergo during shipment and use. Ullage: That amount which a tank or vessel lacks of being full. The industry, therefore, advocates the Single Point Mooring System. Conventional Mooring System: The conventional mooring system uses fixed mooring buoys plus the fore and aft anchors of the vessle to be moored. The con- necting hose to the underwater pipeline. The known objections to this system are: 1 the vessel cannot remain in this position in rough weather, and 2 when whe weather turns bad, it takes too long for the ship to un-moor and lift anchors.