Astronomy in Depth

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Venus makes a complete orbit around the Sun a year in Venusian time in Earth days or slightly less than two Venusian day-night cycles. Its orbit around the Sun is the most circular of any planet — nearly a perfect circle.


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Other planet's orbits are more elliptical, or oval-shaped. With an axial tilt of just 3 degrees, Venus spins nearly upright, and so does not experience noticeable seasons. When the solar system settled into its current layout about 4.

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Like its fellow terrestrial planets, Venus has a central core, a rocky mantle and a solid crust. It has a thick atmosphere full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and clouds made of sulfuric acid. The atmosphere traps heat and keeps Venus toasty warm. It's so hot on Venus, metals like lead would be puddles of melted liquid.

Venus looks like a very active planet. It has mountains and volcanoes. Venus is similar in size to Earth. Earth is just a little bit bigger. Venus is unusual because it spins the opposite direction of Earth and most other planets. And its rotation is very slow.

Venus is in many ways similar to Earth in its structure.

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It has an iron core that is approximately 2, miles 3, kilometers in radius. Above that is a mantle made of hot rock slowly churning due to the planet's interior heat. The surface is a thin crust of rock that bulges and moves as Venus' mantle shifts and creates volcanoes. From space, Venus is bright white because it is covered with clouds that reflect and scatter sunlight.

At the surface, the rocks are different shades of grey, like rocks on Earth, but the thick atmosphere filters the sunlight so that everything would look orange if you were standing on Venus. Venus has mountains, valleys, and tens of thousands of volcanoes.

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The highest mountain on Venus, Maxwell Montes, is 20, feet high 8. The landscape is dusty, and surface temperatures reach a scalding degrees Fahrenheit degrees Celsius.


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It is thought that Venus was completely resurfaced by volcanic activity to million years ago. Venus has two large highland areas: Ishtar Terra, about the size of Australia, in the north polar region; and Aphrodite Terra, about the size of South America, straddling the equator and extending for almost 6, miles 10, kilometers. Venus is covered in craters, but none are smaller than 0. Small meteoroids burn up in the dense atmosphere, so only large meteoroids reach the surface and create impact craters. Almost all the surface features of Venus are named for noteworthy Earth women — both mythological and real.


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  • A volcanic crater is named for Sacajawea, the Native American woman who guided Lewis and Clark's exploration. A deep canyon is named for Diana, Roman goddess of the hunt. Venus' atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide, with clouds of sulfuric acid droplets. Popular Features. New Releases. Astronomy in Depth. Description Astronomy in Depth fills the need for a textbook that covers pre-university level Astronomy courses in the UK, the GCSE syllabuses and provides numerical examples to help students. It is also written as a serious foundation in Astronomy for amateurs who want to take a more detailed approach than can be found in the bulk of introductory astronomy books.

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    Almost every aspect of astronomy is considered, from Earth and its place in the solar system, through instrumentation, the planets, stars, and galaxies, to black holes and the beginnings of cosmology. This book is perfect for anyone who wants to get to know astronomy in detail, as quickly as possible. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x Table of contents 1 Spaceship Earth. With help from next-generation particle accelerators, the approach may nail down the rate of oxygen production in the universe.

    Lab-scale experiment could help scientists understand interstellar and galactic-scale smashups.

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    Planetary system orbiting an unusually quiet star is ideal for future habitability searches. An algorithm developed to study the structure of galaxies helps explain a key feature of embryonic development. From making the lunar landings possible to interpreting the meaning of the moon rocks, the Institute was a vital part of history. The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association recognizes innovation and leadership in science and technology.

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    Scientists from the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes instrument team develop method to detect the tiniest traces of life on other planetary bodies. Honor recognizes scientists whose achievements have most advanced our understanding of planetary systems. MIT community input will help determine the focus of the study to be carried aboard Blue Moon lander.